# Print Matrix in Python

Outline: To print matrix in Python use –

• `numpy. array()` method, or,
• `numpy.matrix` class, or,
• a list comprehension + `join()` method
• `join() + map()` methods

## ❖ Overview

A matrix is a two-dimensional data structure consisting of elements arranged in rows and columns. For example:

The above figure represents a 4×3 matrix since it has four rows and three columns.

Now that you know what a matrix is let us dive into the mission-critical question –

Problem Statement: Given a matrix as an input, how will you print and display it as an output in Python?

You might be wondering – “Can’t I simply print the matrix by storing it in a variable?”🤔 Unfortunately, it won’t print the input matrix. Instead, it will generate a list of lists, as shown below.

## ❖ Method 1: Using The NumPy Library

Python comes with a multitude of extremely powerful libraries which allow you to work with huge amounts of data with ease.

`NumPy` is a library in Python that is used for scientific computing and supports powerful functions to deal with N-dimensional array objects. It also provides us with functions for working in the domains of linear algebra, fourier transform, and matrices.

📓 Note: You need to install `NumPy` before you can use it. You can install it using –

Let’s have a look at the different ways to create and print a matrix in Python using `NumPy`.

### 1️⃣ Using numpy.array()

The `array()` method of the `NumPy` library allows you to create a matrix object.

Example:

Output:

[[0 1 4 2 3]
[4 2 0 1 5]
[2 2 1 0 3]
[3 4 5 3 0]]

### 2️⃣ Using numpy.matrix()

The `numpy.matrix()` class returns a matrix from an array-like object or a string of data.

Syntax:

Example:

Output:

[[0 1 4 2 3]
[4 2 0 1 5]
[2 2 1 0 3]
[3 4 5 3 0]]

⚠️Caution: It is not recommended to use this class anymore. Instead, you should opt for regular arrays. The class may be removed/deprecated in the future.

TRIVIA

## ❖ Method 2: Using List Comprehension and join

✏️ In simple words, a list comprehension is a crisp and compact way of creating Python lists.

Syntax: `[expression for item in iterable if condition == True]`

Example:

✏️ `join()` is a function in Python that takes the items of an iterable and combines them into a single string.

Example:

Thus, you can leverage the functionality of a list comprehension along with the `join` method to print a matrix.

Example:

Output:

0 1 4 2 3
4 2 0 1 5
2 2 1 0 3
3 4 5 3 0

You can also use a nested `for loop` to replicate the above concept.

But, the above code will result in 24 `print` statements as opposed to a single `print` statement in case of the list comprehension.

## ❖ Method 3: Using join()+map()

✏️ `map( )` is an inbuilt method in Python that takes a function and an iterable as an input. It then executes the function by passing the iterable as an input to the function.

Syntax:

Example:

Output:

0 1 4 2 3
4 2 0 1 5
2 2 1 0 3
3 4 5 3 0

Explanation:

• the for loop allows you to iterate through each individual array/row within the matrix.
• `map(str, i)` converts all the items within each row to a string and then,
• `'\t'.join` combines the individual items in a single string, and then each row gets printed one by one.

## Conclusion

Thus, this article unveiled numerous methods to print a matrix in Python. The simplest and the most effective way to print a matrix in Python is undoubtedly the `numpy.array()` method as it takes care of all arrangements and dimensions without any interference for the user.

With that, we come to the end of this tutorial. Please subscribe and stay tuned for more interesting discussions in the future. Happy coding! 📚

That’s all about how to print matrix in Python.

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